Below are a list of books and papers which are relevant to RivEX.  They cover a wide range of topics and demonstrate the many uses channel metrics have in ecology, geomorphology and hydrology.  Expect this section to increase over time as papers are included.





Abrahams, A.D. (1984). Channel Networks: A geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, 20(2), 161 - 168.


Balkhanov, V. K. and Bashkuev Yu. V. (2004). Fractal dimension of the channel network structure of Selenga river delta. Water Conservation, 31(2), 148 - 151.


Brenden, T. O., Wang, L., Seelbach, P. W., Clark Jr, R. D., Wiley, M. J. and Sparks-Jackson, B. L. (2008). A spatially constrained clustering program for river valley segment delineation from GIS digital river networks. Environmental Modelling & Software, 23, 638 - 649.  Web Link

Nicolas Cadieux, Margaret Kalacska, Oliver T. Coomes, Mari Tanaka and Yoshito Takasaki. (2020). A Python Algorithm for Shortest-Path River Network Distance Calculations Considering River Flow Direction. Data 2020, 5(1). Web Link

Carling, P., Jansen, J and Meshkova, L. (2014) Multichannel rivers: their definition and classification. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 39, 26-37. Web Link

Chen, X., Wei, X., Scherer, R., Luider, C. and Darlington, W. (2006). A watershed scale assessment of in-stream large woody debris patterns in the southern interior of British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 229, 50–62. Web Link

Cote, D., Kehler, D. G., Bourne, C. and Wiersma, Y. F. (2009). A new measure of longitudinal connectivity for stream networks. Landscape Ecol, 24, 101-113. Web Link

Cumming, G. S. (2004). The impact of low-head dams on fish species richness in Wisconsin, USA. Ecological Applications, 14(5), 1495–1506.


Dawson, F. H. , Hornby,  D. D. and Hilton, J. (2002). A method for the automated extraction of environmental variables to help the classification of rivers in Britain. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12(4), 391 - 403. Web Link

Dixon, W. , Smyth, G. K. and Chiswell, B. (1999). Optimized selection of river sampling sites. Water Research, 33(4), 971 -978.


Dunn, W. C., Milne, B. T, Mantilla, R. and Gupta, V. K. (2011). Scaling relations between riparian vegetation and stream order in the Whitewater River network, Kansas, USA. Landscape Ecol, 26, 983-997.Web Link

FitzHugh, T. W. (2005). GIS Tools for Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation Planning. Transactions in GIS, 9(2), 247–263. Web Link

Fürst, J. and Hörhan, T. (2008). Coding of watershed and river hierarchy to support GIS-based hydrological analyses at different scales. Computers and Geosciences, in press. Web Link

Gan, K.C. , McMahon, T. A. and Finlayson, B. L. (1992). Fractal dimensions and lengths of rivers in south-east Australia. Cartographic Journal, 29(1), 31 - 34.


Gleyzer, A. , Denisyuk,  M. ,Rimmer, A. and Salingar, Y. (2004). A Fast Recursive GIS Algorithm for Computing Strahler Stream Order in Braided and Nonbraided Networks. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 40(4), 937 - 946.   Web Link

Gregory, K. J. and Walling, D. E. (1973). Drainage basin form and process. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 456 p.


Hansen, W. F. (2001). Identifying stream types and management implications. Forest Ecology and Management, 143, 39 - 46.


Herlihy, A T., Larsen, D. P., Paulsen, S. G., Urquhart N. S. and Rosenbaum, B. J. (2000). Designing a spatially balanced, randomized site selection process for regional stream surveys: the EMAP mid-Atlantic pilot study. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 63, 95  - 113.


Jasiewicz, J and Metz M. (2011). A new GRASS GIS toolkit for Hortonian analysis of drainage networks. Computers & GeoSciences, 37, 1162 - 1173. Web Link

Joshua Jones, Luca Börger, Jeroen Tummers, Peter Jones, Martyn Lucas, Jim Kerr, Paul Kemp, Simone Bizzi, Sofia Consuegra, Lucio Marcello, Andrew Vowles, Barbara Belletti, Eric Verspoor, Wouter Van de Bund, Peter Gough and CarlosGarcia de Leaniza (2019). A comprehensive assessment of stream fragmentation in Great Britain. Science of The Total Environment, 673, 756-762. Web Link

Ichoku, C. and Chorowicz, J. (1994). A numerical approach to the analysis and classification of channel network patterns. Water Resources Research, 30(2), 161 - 174.


Lanfear, K. J. (1990). A fast algorithm for automatically computing Strahler stream order. Water Resources Bulletin, 26(6), 977 - 981.


Laura L. de Sosa, Helen C. Glanville, Miles R. Marshall, Sinan A. Abood, A. Prysor Williams  and Davey L. Jones (2018). Delineating and mapping riparian areas for ecosystem service assessment. Ecohydrology, 11(2), 1-16. Web Link

Lewin, J. (1970). A note on stream ordering. Area, 2, 32 - 35.


Lindsay, J. B., Rothwell, J. J. and Davies, H. (2008). Mapping outlet points used for watershed delineation onto DEM-Derived stream networks. Water Resources Research, 44, W08442.Web Link

Lindsay, J. B.,Yang, W. and Hornby, D. D. (2019). Drainage Network Analysis and Structuring of Topologically Noisy Vector Stream Data. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 8, 422.Web Link

Kris Van Looy, Thierry Tormos and Yves Souchon (2014). Disentangling dam impacts in river networks. Ecological Indicators, 37, 10-20.Web Link

Makaske, B. (2001). Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products. Earth-Science Reviews, 53, 149 - 196.


Mark, D. M. (1988). Network models in geomorphology. In Modelling Geomorphological Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 73 - 97.


Miller, S. N., Guertin, D. P. and Goodrich, D. C. (1996). Linking GIS and geomorphologic field research at Walnut Gulch experimental watershed. American Water Resources Association. Web Link

Regnauld, N. and Mackaness, W. A. (2006). Creating a hydrographic network from its cartographic representation: a case study using Ordnance Survey MasterMap data. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Volume 20, Issue 6 July 2006 , pages 611 - 631.   Web Link

Rosgen, D. L. (1994). A classification of natural rivers. Catena, 22, 169 - 199.


Jon Schwenk, Anastasia Piliouras, and Joel C. Rowland (2020). Determining flow directions in river channel networks using planform morphology and topology. Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 87–102.Web Link

Serres, B. de and Roy, A. G. (1990). Flow direction and branching geometry at junctions in dendritic river networks. Professional Geographer, 42(2), 194 - 201. Web Link

Shreve, R. L. (1967). Infinite topologically random channel networks. J. Geol. , 75, 397 – 414.


Strahler, A. N. (1952). Dynamic basis of geomorphology. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 63, 923 - 938.


Tarboton, D. G. , Bras, R. L. and Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. (1988). The fractal nature of river networks. Water Resources Research, 24(8), 1317 - 1322.


Martin Thoms,  Murray Scown  and Joseph Flotemersch (2018). Characterization of River Networks: A GIS Approach and Its Applications. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 54(4), 899-913. Web Link

Tsang, Y., Wieferich, D., Fung, K. et al. (2014). An approach for aggregating upstream catchment information to support research and management of fluvial systems across large landscapes. SpringerPlus 3, 589. Web Link